According to the American Diabetes Association (ADA), diabetics have impaired body's immune system that makes them more susceptible to infections. Including those caused by influenza virus.
People with diabetes are more at risk of serious complications (pneumonia, bronchitis, sinusitis and ear conditions) influenza. Diabetics are also three times more likely to die if they suffer from influenza or pneumonia. In addition, the glycemic control is more difficult in diabetics suffering from influenza.
A Canadian study during the influenza pandemic of 2009 revealed that diabetics have three times more likely to be hospitalized than other people if infected with influenza. Once in the hospital, diabetics with flu are four times more risk to be hospitalized in intensive care unit.
Therefore, the Center for Disease Control (CDC) of the United States and health authorities of many countries recommend the injectable influenza vaccine to all persons suffering from diabetes, from six months of age. The CDC does not recommend nasal spray vaccine for children under two years old, adults over 49, pregnant women and people with chronic diseases such as diabetes, and other inactivated vaccines (trivalent or quadrivalent).
For its part, health experts also urge that relatives of people with diabetes to get vaccinated, to avoid contagion. A recent study showed that seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine is as safe and effective in people with diabetes and those that are not.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), diabetes is one of the most common non-communicable diseases and one of the most challenging health problems in the twenty-first century and continues to rise.
In the world there are about 387 million people with diabetes. Diabetes can reduce life expectancy of the patient to between 5 and 10 years, and having other complications if no disease control.
Both the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes recommended as one strategy for controlling the disease, patient-centered approach, focused on providing customized solutions and shared decision-making in successful treatment for controlling diabetes.
Effective control of type 2 diabetes requires measures of a healthy lifestyle, including weight control and increased physical activity and long-term medical monitoring. However, some people may need additional measures such as the use of drugs that increasingly more specialized, with fewer adverse effects, for effective disease management and adherence to treatment, to prevent risks and secondary consequences.